Nonprofit Research Report

Norman Addiction Information Counseling Public Relations Research Report

 

Introduction

Norman Addiction Information & Counseling, Inc., or NAIC for short, was founded in 1972 by Reverend Richard “Dick” Virtue in Norman, Oklahoma (History 2016). Father Dick initially received a grant from the National Episcopal Churchwomen along with other gifts from Norman civic leaders to begin the company. Three years after it was founded, NAIC became the first company in Oklahoma to provide substance abuse treatment contracted by the Oklahoma Department of Mental Health and Substance Abuse Services (History 2016). In 1996, NAIC purchased their first building through grants from the Sarkeys, Kerr, Mabee, and McCasland foundations (History 2016). After serving as the founding executive director for 30 years, Father Dick retired and H.N. “Sonny” Scott took his place and served as the executive director for six years. NAIC’s current executive director, Teresa Collado, took over the position in 2008 (History 2016). “Oklahoma continues to be a state with one of the highest rates of prescription drug abuse in the U.S. Indeed, the Norman community has seen its share of tragedy. Despite state funding cutbacks, NAIC has been able to find the necessary funding and keep program cuts at a minimum” (Annual Report, 2016). Today, NAIC is continuing to help people but are lacking in funding. A cut in certain incomes for NAIC could lead to the decrease in programs and services.

NAIC’s mission statement is “provide help and inspire hope for individuals, families and communities through the prevention and treatment of addiction and mental illness” (Annual Report 2015). “NAIC’s vision is to prevent and treat the health issues of addiction and mental illness as the premier comprehensive center in Oklahoma” (Annual Report 2016). Although NAIC was founded by Father Dick, the company is not christian based today. NAIC only encourages customers and their families to continue with their own religion (Client Interview, 2016). “NAIC is committed to saving one life, one family at a time. Partnering with other social service organizations over the years has enabled NAIC to reach more people in need, facilitate new forums for raising awareness about the impact of addiction and to share resources that strengthen the communities it serves” (Annual Report, 2016).

NAIC is currently working with a budget of about 1.3 million (Client Interview, 2016). As far as finances are concerned, about 65% of their funding comes from state contracts or Federal money (Annual Report, 2016). NAIC has struggled with political influences over the years because of the fluctuation in the Oklahoma economy (Client Interview, 2016). Fundraising brought in around $41,220 in 2016. They also have private donors and corporate sponsors.  NAIC has struggled with political influences over the years because of the fluctuation in the Oklahoma economy (Client Interview, 2016).

 

The Norman public is uninformed and unaware of NAIC and the services that it has to offer. Research showed that once people were informed about the issues and the services that NAIC as to offer, they were more likely feel positively about NAIC.

 

Key Facts

NAIC has been around for 44 years. NAIC was the first agency to have to be contracted with the Oklahoma Department of Mental Health and Substance Abuse Services to provide substance abuse treatment (NAIC, 2016). It was also Oklahoma’s first private, non profit outpatient agency to fight drug and alcohol abuse (Sparks, 2007).  The founder, Reverend Richard “Dick” Virtue, was loved by many people. He played a large role in the steps taken to cure the addiction disease in the state of Oklahoma. Virtue received many awards for his work at NAIC including: the 1991 Bishop’s Award of the Episcopal diocese of Oklahoma, the Sam Shoemaker Award from the Board of Directors of the National Episcopal Coalition on Alcohol and Drugs, the Humanitarian of the Year Award from the City COuncil of Norman, Oklahoma in 2003 and the Lifetime Achievement Award from the Oklahoma Citizen Advocated for Recovery and Treatment Association in 2004.

NAIC’s primary competitor is Alcohol Training & Education, Inc. (ATE). (Client Interview, 2016) Both Centers offer alcohol counseling required by state law in order for someone to get their driver’s license back after being charged with a DUI (Client Interview, 2016). ATE has 13 centers throughout the state, making their training more convenient (Contact Us). Facilities similar to NAIC offer similar services as well as in-patient options. Such facilities include: Better Place Recovery Services, Norman Alcohol Rehabilitation and Drug Treatment, Children’s Recovery Center of Oklahoma and CommunityWorks. However, NAIC provides far more services than just alcohol counseling. NAIC offers drug and alcohol addiction counseling, gambling addiction counseling and trauma counseling (Client Interview, 2016). NAIC also offers prevention services and family services (Client Interview, 2016).

Nompton Media group used the grunig scale to find the perception that the key public has of NAIC. This scale ranged from different basic characteristics that the participants taking the survey were able to scale between.

 

Key Features

NAIC’s product is its intensive outpatient addiction treatment program. NAIC offers counseling services and treatment for various addictions and related mental health issues (Client Interview, 2016). Also, NAIC provides counseling for families who have been impacted by addiction (Client Interview, 2016). In addition to counseling and treatment, NAIC provides addicts with DUI school and licensure reinstatements (Client Interview, 2016).  NAIC’s services are different than other addiction counseling centers because it serves as a one stop location. Rather than being only a rehabilitation center, mental health counseling center or a DUI school, NAIC provides every service an addict would need in one location.

NAIC’s services are specific to fighting addiction, which is NAIC’s mission: to provide hope and help to families and individuals who have been impacted by addiction (Client Interview, 2016). The organization established its services because there is a major need for addiction treatment in Oklahoma. Newsok wrote an article stating Oklahoma is ranked the No. 1 state in prescribed painkiller abuse in the U.S. (Vieth 2012). Addiction not only causes destruction in the individual’s life, but impacts everyone in their sphere of influence. The purpose of NAIC’s services is to address these issues.  

Patient plans are created for specific individuals based on their need. The amount of appointments need per week/month and the number of group therapy sessions that someone has to attend depends the severity or the patient’s problem (Client Interview, 2016).

All counseling services and treatment programs are executed by licensed professional counselors who are dedicated to providing ethical and intentional care throughout a client’s entire counseling process (Client Interview, 2016).

The creation of NAIC resulted from a complete lack of any type of agency like it at the time created in the State of Oklahoma but a large need for the services that NAIC offers. The services offered were created by NAIC.

NAIC wants to be the place to go for all substance abuse issues but with a lack of awareness within the public it is difficult for this to be true of the Norman/OKC community. It is important that awareness be raised, not only for potential clients, but also to increase awareness about the issue with potential donors.

 

Product Benefits

NAIC’s key public is potential donors. By accepting personal donations, NAIC is able to have a relationship with the Norman/OKC community and allows the community to feel that they have a part in the mission of NAIC. NAIC, however, lacks many benefits for this key public. It is important to incorporate new ideas in order to create a better experience for potential donors. New tactics need to be put into place to keep the potential donors well informed about how and what NAIC is doing, make them feel like they have more control and a part of ownership in NAIC and some type of recognition for them (Focus Group, 2016). Some potential tactics include: monthly newsletters/phone calls and events recognizing the donors. The product benefits for potential clients that NAIC offers includes alcohol and addiction counseling, family counseling DUI school and licensing reinstatement: It is a one stop location for all addiction counseling needs (NAIC 2016). Having all types of services under one roof makes for a more efficient and convenient type of treatment for clients. This saves time and money for clients not having to visit multiple treatment centers for different services. NAIC offers family counseling: This creates an open environment to allow families to heal alongside the addict (Client Interview, 2016). This grows family relationships and the image of NAIC being a family centered treatment center. NAIC offers the ability to donate to the organization: this allows people to become a part of the company. These benefits allow NAIC to build its reputation with its clients and allows the clients to have confidence that they are seeking the treatment that is right for them.

 

Organization Research

Performance

Norman Addiction Information and Counseling (NAIC) provides confidential and safe outpatient treatment for addiction of substance abuse, gambling and related mental health issues. Their services include Addiction Information Series (AIS), Professional Development Training and Community Education, Outpatient and Intensive Outpatient Treatment Services, Prevention Services, which provides Drug Free Communities (DFC) School/Community Assistance Program (S-CAP), and Adult/ Adolescent Court Referred Programs (NAIC, 2016) including Adult Drug Court, Family Drug Court, and Juvenile Drug Court (Client Interview, 2016).

The criteria for determining the quality of NAIC came from the reviews found on their main website, along with the reviews from their Facebook page (NAIC, 2016). The quality was also determined by the outcome measures of the amount of patients that have gone through the program completely and have not relapsed, the number of patients who have gone through the program completely and have relapsed, and the number of patients that were not able to finish the program completely (NAIC, 2016).

NAIC received a 4.3 rating out of a 5.0 scale on their Facebook page (NAIC, 2016). They also had an active appearance on many websites such as United Way and addicted.org (Client Interview, 2016) showing that they had a good name in the addiction-counseling circle. On the NAIC website, they showed their goals along with the statistics of how their goals were met throughout the year or how they were exceeded. These statistics showed that the patients and their families were overall pleased with the treatment and resulted in positive lifestyle changes (NAIC, 2016).

The quality improvement within the past three years requires more primary research. Accessing the past three annual reports will help provide this information. More primary research is also needed to determine the satisfaction of the leaders of the organization with the quality.

The benefits provided by NAIC included the ability to give the freedom from addiction to individuals and their families for little to sometimes no money (NAIC, 2016). They also trained communities to understand the issue, creating a more inviting environment for the individuals struggling with addiction. They benefited the state by offering court-mandated therapy which reduces the amount of inmates in prison system (Client Interview, 2016).

The disadvantages that NAIC had with these services include certain services being being available only to those who can pay a mandatory cost for that service. Addiction counseling centers had a bad stigma around them that makes it hard for the patients to feel accepted in the community, and they had a lack of resources, especially the past couple of years, that have resulted in cutting certain programs and not allowing all the services possible (Client Interview, 2016).

 

Niche

NAIC was set apart from its competitors by it being the first agency in Oklahoma to be contracted by the Oklahoma Department of Mental Health (DMH) and Substance Abuse Services. The organization was praised for being one of the few addiction-counseling centers with outpatient treatment and group therapy, which proved to be best (Client Interview, 2016).

The services offered by NAIC that changed over the past three years include the addition of the Trauma group. This group is a women specific group that handles how to be safe when dealing with domestic violence along with how to heal as a victim of domestic violence. The amount of family involvement within the therapy process had also decreased, which is a negative change according to Teresa Collado, Executive Director of NAIC. Lastly, due to the lack of funds, the prevention services offered had to be cut from the program in order to offer other primary services (Client Interview, 2016).

Due to the lack of primary research, it was difficult to determine how services will change in the next two years. NAIC predicts to run out of funds in the spring of 2017, resulting in a decrease of the amount of services that the company can provide (Client Interview, 2016).

NAIC will have to gain more funds in order to offer more services along with improving the already existing services. In order to do this, NAIC could grow their relationships with their donors that exist, while creating new relationships with potential new donors. One way to gain potential donors is by increasing the amount of individuals on the board (Client Interview, 2016).

There was not enough primary research to determine whether or not the organization’s leaders were willing to make such changes. Research did show, however, that here is room for the board of directors to hold 12-15 bodies whereas there are only 8 members of the board currently (Client Interview, 2016).

 

Structure

NAIC’s mission statement is “NAIC provides help and inspires hope for individuals, families, and communities through the prevention and treatment of addiction and mental illness”  (NAIC, 2016). The purpose of NAIC is to provide treatment services needed to the individuals and their families who suffer from addiction and related mental illnesses (NAIC, 2016).

“NAIC’s vision is to prevent and treat the health issues of addiction and mental illness as the premier comprehensive center in Oklahoma” (NAIC, 2016).

NAIC created goals at the beginning of their fiscal year in order to track their success throughout the year. The NAIC Annual Report displayed these goals in a strategic form that is impressive and reaching but also achievable and reachable (NAIC, 2016).

As of now, there are not any communication resources at NAIC. Although they had a presence on social media platforms such as Facebook and Twitter, there was not a staff member that is solely in charge communicating to the publics. In general, there was only $3-4,000 given towards communication resources in their total budget of $1.3 million (Client Interview, 2016).

With the lack of funds and knowledge, it is not likely for NAIC to add a Public Relations department. With a lack of primary research in this area, it could not be determined whether this remains true or not depending on the future circumstances with funding.

Without a Public Relations team in place to help make decision, it is clear to say that public relations does not play a role in the decision-making process (Client Interview, 2016).

 

Internal Impediments

The internal environment is neutral to public relations activities, but due to the lack of funding and knowledge. However, a separate Public Relations team was not a priority to NAIC.

The internal impediments and obstacles that NAIC faced include a lack of staff on hand in order to fill all of the rolls that achieve maximum success. There were not an efficient amount of staff jobs to complete all of the work that is already there. This impediment is not deliberate, but stems from the lack of funds, making it one of the biggest concerns of NAIC (Client Interview, 2016).

To overcome this impediment will require an addition of funding. By increasing the number of people on staff with additional funding. Connections and resources from the staff could add more private donations to the company (Client Interview, 2016).

 

Competition

Many other addiction centers exist in the Norman/OKC area. With an easy search of addiction centers in the area, individuals found many other centers similar to NAIC. All of the addiction centers in Oklahoma are fighting for the same grants from the government, creating a very competitive environment. In the past years more DUI schools have come to be in the area. With other facilities offering similar services, such as drug and alcohol courts, it is difficult to get lawyers and judges to prefer NAIC over other addiction facilities (Client Interview, 2016).

Facilities similar to NAIC offer similar services as well as in-patient options. Such facilities include: Better Place Recovery Services, Norman Alcohol Rehabilitation and Drug Treatment, Children’s Recovery Center of Oklahoma and CommunityWorks.

The Children’s Recovery Center of Oklahoma has a rating of 3.9 out of a 5.0 scale. This center focuses on children ranging from 13-17 years of age who have a presence of emotional disturbance and substance abuse disorders (Oklahoma, 2016). They are not very active on their media platforms resulting in a lack of information, reputation data and reviews.

Some of their services include: screening assessment and diagnostic impression, client-centered individualized treatment plan, case management services. They have a psychiatrist on staff to help with medication management along with individual therapy, family therapy and group therapy. They also have the option of residential treatment dorms (Oklahoma, 2016).

Some of the resources that were just stated are not offered by NAIC, such as a psychiatrist on staff and in-patient options with living facilities (Oklahoma, 2016). A dream of NAIC is to have a psychiatrist on staff (Client Interview, 2016). There are more opportunities for family therapy at the Children’s Recovery Center of Oklahoma than at NAIC (Oklahoma, 2016). Additional primary research is necessary in order to find how the competition has changed in the last three years and how it will change in the future.

 

Opposition

There was no specific group or organization that has resisted or hindered NAIC directly, but with the rise of the legalization of marijuana, marijuana advocates could potentially be a threat to the organization. They could resist the organization because they feel that some substance use is beneficial to individuals as opposed to a hindrance of someone’s well being (Moore, 2016).

This is a rapidly growing group that feels strongly towards marijuana being beneficial rather than harmful. They could be referred to them as “stoners,” while others support their advocacy and take part in the usage of marijuana.

Their resources are rapidly growing with the legalization of marijuana. Many medical Marijuana stores have opened, increasing the availability to purchase the drug. Prescriptions are also becoming more available. With the legalization in multiple states over the past couple of years, this drug is becoming more acceptable to society (Moore, 2016).

The tactics of this group has changed along with the view society has of marijuana. As it becomes more of a norm to society, this group changed from being a fun-time drug to promoting the drug as a medical miracle that can cure many diseases (Moore, 2016).

The opposition from this group is likely to increase with the growth of legalization in the United States. As more experiments are released of this drug, sometimes referred to was a “gateway” drug, more people are subject to jumping on the band-wagon that marijuana is good.

 

External Impediments

The environment surrounding NAIC was slightly unpredictable due to the constant changes in the economy that creates more or less clients seeking treatment along with the financial stability of the donors (Collado, 2016). With the legalization of marijuana rising, there is also a possibility for a larger need of treatment (Jensen, 2016).

With the State of Oklahoma economy, many cuts have had to been made towards NAIC. This impediment affects both the internal and external. By cutting the funding to NAIC, there is less money to pay staff, which results in the consumers receiving less treatment. The regulators of NAIC review their success and are responsible for deciding the amount of funds received by the government. Impediments from political, economic and financial origins include the lack of funds that the NAIC has.  

Some technological impediments that are fairly new to the NAIC is the growing amount of online rehabilitation services being offered that can be done from the comfort of one’s home. A social impediment that NAIC has is the negative stigma that comes with addiction rehabilitation facilities. Society views addiction as shameful resulting in guilt for the addict causing them to hide their problem. Asking for help for addiction can be seen as weak in today’s society (Collado, 2016).

A legal impediment that NAIC has is dependence on the court system to keep their drug and alcohol court systems in place. The courts could send the user to prison where they have a high percentage of growing their addiction rather than seeking them help through NAIC (Collado 2016). Further primary research is needed to answer the question of if there are environmental impediments toward NAIC (Collado, 2016).

 

Situation Research

Background

NAIC has always needed more funding, but within the last three years funding has reached a record low (Group Interview, 2016). NAIC usually receives 50-60% of their funding from the state, but Oklahoma has been having revenue loss resulting in less governmental funding given to NAIC (Group Interview, 2016). Stakeholder said within the last three years they have been in “survival mode” (Group Interview, 2016).  In addition to cuts in state funding, there is minimal donor cultivation (Interviews, 2016). In an interview with a stakeholder for NAIC, the stakeholder stated NAIC is maintaining the donors they currently have, but is not actively seeking out new donors. The cause of this situation is lack of awareness of NAIC and the seriousness of addiction in Oklahoma. People are not aware of NAIC’s mission, impact of services or need for donations.

Consequences

This situation is vital to the organization’s mission. NAIC cannot provide hope and help to families and individuals who have been impacted by addiction without funding. The community will not be able to receive counsel and treatment if there aren’t enough donations to support the organization, which is NAIC’s mission. This is an opportunity to raise awareness of NAIC, educate the public on the severity of addiction in Oklahoma and cultivate an influx of donations.

Resolution

The type of information the research team gathers will definitely affect how the situation will be resolved.  Quality research needs to be conducted because it is important to understand people’s current attitudes towards NAIC and addiction in Oklahoma. It is also needed to determine how to generate more positive attitudes.  In addition, quality research needs to be conducted to decide what message will effectively resonate with people and fulfill the objective.  The best way to proceed is with both quality and quantity research. However, quality research might be most important in order to determine attitudes and resolutions.

In order to mutually benefit everyone, NAIC needs to raise awareness of the seriousness of addiction, the impact it has on individuals and families, NAIC services, and NAIC’s need for donations. Raising awareness will give NAIC the provision to give help and hope to more addicts in Oklahoma, which will benefit the community and help NAIC continue to fulfill their mission.

The issue is a priority for the organization. However rather than focusing on cultivating donations, they are putting effort into being the most effective steward of the government’s money (Group Interview, 2016).

Publics

Basic Questions for Publics

Potential donors, current donors, users, families of users, substance abuse counselors, addiction activist organizations and future users are the major publics for NAIC. Potential donors are the key public because their support could generate more donations and improve the situation allowing NAIC to continue fulfilling their mission.

Potential donors are too broad and complex to fit into one category. They can be informed of NAIC and the organization’s need for donations and still not be NAIC donors-therefore, making them a latent public. However most potential donors are most likely serving as an apathetic public because many are completely unaware of NAIC and the severity of addiction within their community.  When asked about the general public’s opinion of NAIC, NAIC stakeholder stated, “I don’t think anyone really knows we are here.” (Interviews, 2016).  Primarily, potential donors serve as an apathetic public.

       

Customers

Concerning the situation, NAIC’s primary customers are potential donors. According to a Forbes article, the baby boomer generation is the most likely generation to donate to philanthropies or nonprofit organizations because they are the oldest generation and therefore, have the most money (Jacobs 2013). Women are also more likely to donate than men (Cabrera 2012). According to the Nonprofit Times, Caucasians give more to nonprofits than other races (Rovner 2015). In summary, the demographic for donors are Caucasian women from the Baby Boomer generation, which ranges  from ages 52-70.

NAIC’s secondary customers are struggling addicts in search of help and treatment. According to a study conducted by Sunrise House, the highest percentage of drug users are African-Americans (Addiction with Demographics).  Whereas the highest percentage of binge drinkers are Caucasian males (Addiction with Demographics). Research shows the typical demographic of a compulsive gambler is a single male in either of the following age groups: 18-29 or 40-49 (Lange).

Producers

Highly-trained and qualified counselors provide the counseling and treatment services. NAIC receives 50%-60% of their funding from the government and the rest from donations within the community, which is how they operate and provide materials (Group Interview, 2016). The government has been bringing in less money within the last few years because of revenue loss, which is why they are in need of donations from the community and this revenue loss will probably remain constant in future years.

Enablers

The opinion leaders are on the Board of Directors, but NAIC stakeholder expressed that they have a lack of opinion leaders (Group Interview, 2016). Within the next three years, there is the hope to recruit more opinion leaders within the community. The Board of Directors is in charge of fundraising efforts, which is why it is imperative to have more opinion leaders on the Board. Opinion leaders can help make fundraisers more successful and can raise awareness of the severity of addiction and NAIC. The Board of Directors also serve as the regulators of NAIC. Collado explained how the Board of Directors used to be made up of only white males, but over the last three years has been diversified (Group Interview, 2016).

NAIC’s colleagues are their substance abuse and gambling therapists; they are constantly receiving updated training to best aid clients. NAIC’s therapists range between 20-60 years of age.

NAIC does has social media sites that can be utilized for enabling purposes. These sites are kept up to date, but reaches a minimal number of people.

Limiters

NAIC’s primary competition are the nonprofits that receive donations over NAIC. According to the Nonprofit Times, people are most likely to donate to places of worship, local social service organizations (shelters and food banks), children’s charities and health charities (Rovner 2015). Although NAIC is a health charity, people don’t view addiction as a medical condition and don’t feel compelled to donate because of their negative views towards addiction (Addiction within Demographics). The missions of the above categorical nonprofits resonate with the public more than NAIC’s mission. This limits the amount of donations that are given, which limits the amount of people with addiction they can counsel and provide with treatment.

NAIC’s direct competitor is CommunityWorks, which is the only other outpatient addiction center in Norman for a wide range of ages like NAIC.  They counsel a wider variety of addictions, which may appeal to donors and potential donors.

NAIC doesn’t have designated spokespeople; they see themselves as the spokespeople on this issue (Group Interview, 2016). NAIC stakeholder explained she wants to bring the message: “addiction is a disease” to the community-but doesn’t have the vocal activists to deliver this message (Group Interview, 2016). They don’t have opinion leaders who speak on this issue either.

Key Publics

        Potential donors are the key public for NAIC because their support can improve NAIC’s funding situation and aid NAIC in further fulfilling their mission. The research team determined potential donors are an apathetic public.  This was determined from the survey and the focus group study.  In the knowledge section of the survey, primarily participants answered questions about addiction and NAIC incorrectly (Survey, 2016).  In the focus group, the researchers provided participants with statistics on the severity of addiction in Oklahoma and the subjects were shocked by the information (Focus Group, 2016).  Later in the focus group, the research team determined no participants had any knowledge of NAIC until attending this study.  Potential donors are an apathetic public because they are unaware of the severity of addiction and NAIC. Potential donors desire to benefit their community by funding nonprofits. In the surveys, a significant amount of participants expressed an interest in donating to nonprofits, but felt neutral towards donating to NAIC (Survey, 2016).  This neutrality is rooted in a lack of awareness. In the focus group study, potential donors expressed an expectation to be regularly updated on the events and changes within nonprofits in which they invest money. In addition to regular updates, potential donors want to have confidence that the money they are donating is directly serving the community (Focus Group, 2016).  The benefit NAIC can offer potential donors is the altruistic knowledge of the money given is helping individuals in their community.  NAIC is an effective steward of funding and uses it for the benefit of the clients (Group Interview, 2016). Potential donors can fully trust NAIC to use their money to serve the needs of the community.   

Issues

Potential donors are unaware of NAIC’s need for donations because they are completely unaware of NAIC. They have the means to support the organization and improve the situation, but need to feel compelled to give their money.  Potential donors desire to give their money to an organization that will use it wisely and in a way that will better the community (Focus groups, 2016). The general public is unaware of the severity of addiction in Oklahoma and the lack of education on addiction has led potential donors to perceive addiction as an individual failure not as a disease. Therefore, potential donors do not perceive NAIC as a typical health charity.

Organization

Potential donors have the potential to positively affect NAIC because they can bring in funding, which helps NAIC fulfill its mission and vision. Potential donors also have the potential to be an active, invested, and loyal public to NAIC. Potential donors perceive nonprofit donating as a personal investment. This is conveyed in a white paper published by Charity Star, which states “donors want to be assured that the charities they support are working as effectively as they possibly can” (Berg, 2011). Potential donors expect to be kept updated on the organization in which they invest their money and desire to feel connected (Focus groups, 2016). This is because when people invest their money, they invest themselves.  This investment cultivates loyalty to the organization and its mission.            

Opinion Research

        Awareness of NAIC amongst users is growing because NAIC has more clients than ever before.  However, potential client’s awareness of NAIC isn’t the issue at hand.  NAIC stakeholder expressed their concern isn’t a lack of clients, but funds to serve the clients they do have (Group, Interview).  Over the last three years, the influx of clients has been growing, while their means to provide treatment and counsel has been declining.  Although addicts within the community are aware of NAIC, the rest of the community is not. The research team determine there is a significant lack of awareness of addiction and NAIC from the survey and focus group study (Survey, 2016; Focus Group, 2016). In the interview study, a stakeholder explained how there is minimal donor cultivation (Interviews, 2016).  NAIC is maintaining current donors, but isn’t actively seeking new donors (Interviews, 2016).  Potential donors need to be made more aware of Oklahoma’s addiction problem, the way NAIC is fighting this addiction crisis and how it is running out of the means to provide counsel and treatment.

Communication

        Potential donors are not actively seeking information on this because they are unaware addiction is an issue in their community.  The research team has determined there is a lot of shame that comes with addiction, which inhibits people from discussing how severe it is.  This lack of communication prevents NAIC from receiving donations and limits NAIC’s means to provide treatment. Potential donors prefer to be communicated through traditional media such as emails, newspapers and mail (focus groups, 2016).  However, potential donors still use social media to share information with their community (focus groups, 2016).

Demographics/Psychographics

The demographic of a typical nonprofit donor is a Caucasian woman from the baby boomer generation, which means between 52-70 years of age.  The southern region of the United States has the highest percentage of philanthropic and nonprofit donations (Cabrera 2012). Most donors received a college degree and have an income that is greater than $75,000 (Cabrera 2012).  This key public is likely to be persuaded by emotional appeals (Berg 2011).

Benefits:

        Potential donors will be benefited by knowing their money is being used wisely and strategically to benefit the Norman community. NAIC has been stretching their money to meet as many needs as possible, which benefits potential donors because they can be assured their money is funneling directly to NAIC’s cause (Group Interview, 2016). NAIC offers very specific addiction treatment, which leads to successful healing of addiction.  NAIC also offers family counseling and education on addiction.

        There is less public praise and recognition when donating to NAIC than other nonprofits because of the negative perception the public has towards addiction. The general public perceives other organizations as more honorable than those serving the addiction crisis, which inhibits potential donors from donating.

Secondary Research Summary

The information in the secondary research is found from scholarly sources and a group interview, which make the findings accurate.  However, further research was needed to be conducted to determine the general public’s attitudes and perceptions of addiction and NAIC, which was found in the survey, stakeholder interviews and focus groups. The research team used quantitative and qualitative data to determine a clear picture of the situation and what needs to be done to improve it.

Method I – Survey

Overview

The research team conducted secondary research on Norman Addiction Information Counseling (NAIC) and there were certain topics that required further research.  The researchers found substantial information on the different types of services NAIC provides, the mission and vision of the organization, the significant need for more funding and national opposition towards donating to an organization serving struggling addicts. However, further research was needed to gather more information on potential donors; a survey was designed to fill the holes in secondary research. The purpose of this survey is to collect information about knowledge, attitudes and behaviors towards NAIC and addiction. This survey determines habits of potential donors, the community’s awareness of addiction and NAIC’s services, and how the community perceives the organization and the addiction crisis. The researchers are seeking to capture the habits of typical donors and potential donors in order to inform NAIC about this public and provide communication strategies to increase donations.The research team hopes to determine the community’s knowledge of  NAIC because due to their lack of social media presence, it is difficult to conclude if NAIC has a positive image amongst the community.

The research question for this survey is “What knowledge, perceptions, attitudes and behaviors does the Norman community has of NAIC?”. The research team strategically designed the survey questionnaire to answer this research question.

 

Design

A survey is a good method to use to gain the information we need because it gathers the information directly from people (Fink, 5). Through surveys, the researchers are able to understand the feelings and perceptions each individual has towards NAIC (Fink, 5). Surveys are also helpful because it is easier to gather a larger sample and more data for the client (Moore 2016). The design and layout of the surveys cover every construct that is important to answer the research question.

There were decisions made about the content of the questions. Some decisions that were made regarding the content was whether to include national statistic questions along with the Oklahoma statistic questions, deciding what demographic questions would be the most useful for the data trying to be collected and how personal the questions should be regarding personal addiction issues. In making these decisions, the researchers collaborated as a team.The order of the questions also had to be determined. This is important because you want to make the survey as presentable as possible to the person taking the survey while not losing the attention of the person. It is vital for the most important questions to go at the beginning of the survey with the least important being at the end. In this survey, the knowledge was structured at the beginning and the demographics at the end. Although demographics are important, the opinions are vital to the research questions being analyzed.

In order to handle bias in this survey, the researchers designed the survey to where the person taking it could not return to the previous section to change answers. The survey is primarily being distributed from the researcher’s devices in the presence of the research team to eliminate the chances of people having access to searching information on the Internet. This also helps with the dropout rates decreasing because the participants are, in a sense, being watched.

 

Participants

       This is a non-probability sample (Jensen, 2016). This was decided because the researchers want to target a certain portion of the Norman population, which means not all individuals have an equal chance of completing the survey (Jensen, 2016). The population for this survey are Norman citizens ages 49-67 because in secondary publics research typical donors were determined to be in the previous age range and obtain an income between $100,000-$200,000 (Cabrera, 2014). The preferred population is also those who are educated past a high-school degree. Before asking for participation in the survey, the research team will pre-screen individuals to see if they match up with the determined key public. The survey reached 600 people.

 

Setting and Apparatus

The researchers will be collecting data during the month of October at the Norman Mall. The research team will ask individuals at random to take part in a survey.  The survey is conducted on qualtrics and is distributed on an ipad or providing a survey link. On average, it has been taking around 15 minutes for participants to finish the survey.

Independent Variables

The primary demographic of survey participants is female, ages 49-67 who have an income between, $100,000-$200,000 (Moore, 2016). The researchers were targeting this demographic because this public is most likely to donate or volunteer to nonprofits and were successful in reaching .

Dependent Variables

        The dependent variables for the surveys are knowledge, perceptions, attitudes and behaviors. The knowledge portion has questions about knowledge of NAIC and addiction. The perception section covers the different perceptions that people have over NAIC. This is done by having the person choose which word describes NAIC most effectively in many different areas. This can be referred to as the Perception Index Scale. The attitudes portion covers how people feel towards NAIC. The behaviors section has questions about the person’s donating, volunteering and media behaviors.

The construct that these scales comprise is the level of communication that NAIC has with the community. Each of the variables will play a part in determining how and if NAIC communicates with the public and how the public perceives them through the communication given. The research team chose to use the perception index scale because it can give a clear idea of what the public’s opinion is when they think of NAIC. The disadvantage to this scale is that some people will skim through it and just push buttons because it looks long and this will create false data.

 

Procedure

The first step to taking this survey is being asked to take part in it. This is at random. If asked to participate, the person is directed to the link for the survey, whether that is through a researcher’s device or a card with a link to it.  Once on the link, the participant will fill in the student’s ID number that asked them to take part in the survey in order to access the survey. Next, a consent form will pop up for the participant to sign before they begin the survey. Once the participant has signed the consent page, the knowledge portion of the survey will start. After answering all of the answers in the knowledge question, the participant will go to the next page, which is the perception section. On this portion, the participant will choose which word better suits their perception of NAIC. After completing that section, the participant will move onto the attitudes portion where they will answer multiple questions. After attitudes, they will answer questions under the behavior section. Lastly, the demographic portion will pop up and the participant will fill in their personal information. After completing this portion, the participant is finished with the survey. They will have an option at the end of the survey to provide their email address to win a $50 visa gift card. Once they have finished filling in their information, the participant is done and may leave.

Method III – Interviews

 

Overview

The research team conducted secondary research on Norman Addiction Information Counseling (NAIC) and there were certain topics that required further research.  The researchers found substantial information on the different types of services NAIC provides, the mission and vision of the organization, the significant need for more funding and national opposition towards donating to an organization serving struggling addicts.  However, the research team was unable to determine the quality of NAIC’s services and more substantial information on NAIC’s donor cultivation, competition and the external environment in which the organization is operating. Without more information the research team is unable to move forward in consulting NAIC on how to better their financial situation.  The researchers determined stakeholder interviews needed to take place in order to discover the necessary, missing information.

The primary research questions are: RQ 1: What is the quality of NAIC’s services and how is the quality determined? RQ 2: What is the donor cultivation of NAIC? RQ 3: Who is the primary competition? RQ 4: What is the external environment in which NAIC is operating? RQ 5: What potential changes could be made within the organization that would further public relations activities? The research team strategically designed an interview guide to answer these research questions.

 

Data Collection Method

        The research team selected the In-depth Interview process to find the holes in their secondary research. The researchers determined the in-depth interviews should be structured and face-to-face.  In-depth Interviews are used to “probe deeper into the subject’s comments” to truly uncover their attitudes, motivations and behaviors towards the research topic (English, 2005).  The research team felt structured interviews would allow the researchers to carefully design the questions so the desired information could be found.  The research team decided face-to-face interviews would give the interviewer more contextual information on the interviewee’s responses, which would enrich the overall content of the interview.

        The interviews will be held in secluded locations such as offices, homes and private classrooms in order to ensure privacy.  There will be a total of 27 subjects interviewed throughout the month of Nov. The interviews will last approximately 60 minutes and will either be recorded or filmed as long as permission is granted by the stakeholder through a consent form.

Sample

        The population of interest is stakeholders of NAIC. The business dictionary defines a stakeholder as “a person, group or organization that has interest or concern in an organization” (Online Business Dictionary).  A stakeholder is also someone who is invested in an organization. Stakeholders of NAIC that were asked to be interviewed include board members, employees and volunteers.  27 stakeholders were interviewed for this study. The research team selected the volunteer sampling technique, which means it is made up of people who self-select to be a part of this sample and usually have an interest in the study. The researchers asked stakeholders if they would be interviewed and the stakeholders either agreed or disagreed.  

Interview Guide

The stakeholders will be briefed on the content of the questions before the interviewer begins. The research team will inform the stakeholders this study is being conducted to advance and gather knowledge of the internal environment of NAIC with the intention of providing improvements, especially concerning public relations efforts that could improve the situation.

The interview will begin with 20 demographic questions.  The following questions concern the interviewee’s knowledge, attitudes and behaviors towards the internal environment of NAIC and are categorized into 17 topical sections: Mission, Donation and Volunteer Behaviors, Leadership, Communication Within the Organization, Success and Retention of Clients, Perception, Structure, Internal Impediments, Competition, Opposition, External Impediments, Issue Knowledge, Consequences, Resolution, Customers, Producers, Enablers and Influencers, and Key Publics.  The research team categorized the questions in order to focus the stakeholder’s thought process on specific subjects.  The interviewers will provide transitions in between each section, which informs the stakeholders of the following content. The interviewer will end the interview by asking if there is anything else the stakeholder would like to add and will offer contact information in case the stakeholders think of more useful information for the study.

 

Method IV Focus Groups

Overview

A focus group was chosen as another research method because it allowed the research team to gather a group opinion from the key public about NAIC. With the focus group the research team is looking for common ideals and opinions within the groups. We are still gathering the knowledge, attitudes and behaviors that the public has of NAIC with this method, as we have done with the past methods. This method will allow the research team to fill in the holes that have been left after the other methods. The focus group is a group is a group of people that fit the demographic that we are researching and encourages conversation about NAIC to gain new knowledge that can only be answered with close-ended questions.

 

Data Collection Method

The research team determined a focus group was necessary to find the holes in their secondary research. Focus groups include open-ended questions to create a group discussion on a specific topic.  According to Krueger and Casey, focus groups are used to “promote self-disclosure among participants” in order to understand how people really think and feel” (Krueger, 2009). The researchers selected this research method in order to determine the attitudes and perceptions the Norman community has towards NAIC and addiction. The research team will conduct five focus groups with six-ten participants in each study. Each focus group will last between 30-60 minutes. The research team will analyze the data for trends and patterns in participant’s attitudes in all five studies. The researchers decided conducting five focus groups will increase the accuracy of findings. The focus groups will be held in private locations on OU’s campus to ensure privacy. The groups will be recorded and/or videotaped for the purpose of data analyzing. The mediator will strive to set a comfortable and relaxed tone to put participants at ease. Pizza will be provided for all participants. This focus group study will provide the researchers with perception patterns within the Norman community, which weren’t able to be determined in their secondary research.

 

Sample

The population of interest are potential donors of NAIC. Potential donors includes individuals between the ages of 35-55 who live in the Norman area that receives an income more than $50,000 per year. 110 subjects participated in the focus group. The research team selected subjects through the volunteer sampling technique.

 

Focus Group Guide

The potential donors will be informed that the study will provide information of their current knowledge, attitudes and opinions in regard to NAIC and that the information will potentially benefit NAIC’s communication strategies. First, the subjects will introduce themselves stating their name, current job title, and how long they have been working that organization. The research group will then explain the services NAIC provides, and statistics about addiction and gambling. Subjects will share their thoughts about the facts afterwards. Then, the research group will ask the subjects about their thoughts on nonprofit donations and donation habits. After this section, the research team will transition into questions about how the subjects how connected they feel towards NAIC. There will then be 10 questions regarding key public perceptions and then 10 questions regarding key public opinions. After this, there will be questions about communication with NAIC. Finally, the research team will ask the subjects about their wants, needs, interests, expectations and benefits. Lastly, the research team will ask questions regarding each subject’s demographics.

Knowledge

The knowledge section in the NAIC survey asked participants about their knowledge of different issues facing Oklahoma. These questions related to alcohol, drug, gambling and other addictions. Each individual participant answered 16 questions. Five of the 16 were related to drugs, four were related to alcohol, three were related to gambling, and four were related to services. There were 351 participants that were analyzed in this data. Statistical method used to analyze the data in the knowledge section was the survey. Before analyzing the data, the hypothesis for the knowledge section is that the general public is unaware of the severity of addiction in Oklahoma. The research team used frequencies and descriptives to analyze the data.

Where does Oklahoma rank in excessive drinking compared to the rest of the United States?

23.9% of respondents answered this question correctly.

What is the percent of high school students who engaged in binge drinking in the past 30 days in Oklahoma?

37.9% of respondents answered this question correctly.

What age group has the highest rate of excessive drinking in Oklahoma?

75.2% of respondents answered this question correctly.

How much does underage drinking cost the state of Oklahoma per year?

14% of respondents answered this question correctly.

 

What percent of Oklahomans reported using illegal drugs in the past 30 days?

27.1% of respondents answered correctly.

From 2007 to 2012 how many people died from misuse of prescription painkillers in Oklahoma?

37.9% of respondents answered this question correctly?

 

Which drug contributes to the most deaths per year among Oklahomans?

49.6% of respondents answered this question correctly.

 

In 2009, what percent of Oklahomans older than 11 took prescription painkillers for nonmedical reasons?

38.2% of respondents answered this question correctly.

In 2014, how many babies were born in Oklahoma with illegal drugs in their systems?

33.3% of respondents answered this question correctly.

How many more casinos do you think Las Vegas has than Oklahoma?

29.9% of respondents answered this question correctly.

How much revenue did Oklahoma Indian casinos receive in 2013?

32.2% of respondents answered this questions correctly.

How many Oklahomans have experienced problems with gambling?

26.2% of respondents answered this question correctly.

What counseling services does NAIC provide?

81.5% of respondents answered this question correctly.

Where does NAIC receive a majority of their funding?

35.9% of respondents answered this question correctly.

What is the most beneficial service offered by NAIC?

19.7% of respondents answered this question correctly.

What type of addiction counseling does NAIC center provide?

47% of respondents answered this question correctly.

The qualitative data that support these findings are from the focus group conducted by the research team. According to the study, potential donors are uneducated and generally unaware of the severity of addiction in Oklahoma. The research team opened the focus group with statistical evidence of the severity of addiction in the state of Oklahoma. Each statistic shocked each focus group participant. It was obvious they were unaware that addiction was such a problem in their home state. When presented with the drug addiction statistic, participant B said, “I think there is like a taboo about talking about it. I think if addiction is something you’re dealing with that’s not really something that you’re broadcasting to everybody. I think people, I know if I were dealing with addiction I don’t know the statistics behind it, but it’s not something you’re proud of. The statistics show that is a problem.” Participant A said, “There hasn’t been enough emphasis on telling people about it-educating people about it … I do think in society people feel it’s okay to talk about things as long as it’s not a problem. So then it’s just repressed and gets worse and gets bottled.” People do not feel like they have been educated on addiction. Participants expressed part of this lack of awareness could be rooted in how addiction is perceived as something that is shameful and something that doesn’t want to be talked about. The focus group participants were also surprised by the comparison of the amount of casinos in Oklahoma to Las Vegas. “I thought that was surprising that there are so many more casinos. I used to live in Las Vegas and there are a lot of casinos so that’s just really surprising. You don’t see them as much or hear about them in the same way,” participant C said. When the research team read a statistic about binge drinking in Oklahoma, participants shared their own views of the age-drinking law. Participant D said, “It was in high-school we did not binge drink, it was legal for us to do it and we didn’t do it and I know for a fact that some of the deal is we as parents we hold the kids back and hold the kids back like a rubber band and when they get out on their own and man this is what happens. So yeah it’s a problem it’s a big time problem.” Potential donors grew up when drinking was legal in college and binge drinking didn’t exist. This difference in time period affects the way potential donors perceive addiction and nonprofits that seek to help struggling addicts. They didn’t see a lot of binge drinking, so they aren’t aware it happens. They also thought it was unnecessary and irrational, like when participant D said, “Why would you do it? We just didn’t”. They perceive binge drinking as a stupid decision, which may factor into why people are less likely to give to nonprofits that help struggling addicts.

Another qualitative data that supports the statistical findings are the in-depth interviews. When presented with the question about the priority of awareness within NAIC, participant A said, “It’s a top priority because we know we need to get out there and make people aware of our services, I think it’s just figuring out how to do that and with what resources.” When participant A was asked about groups that hinder NAIC receiving donations, they said, “I don’t think there are any groups that are hindering. I think it’s just connecting with people that the mission is important to. Everyone gives to a particular non-profit because of a reason.” NAIC receives few donations and there is a significant lack of funding. Therefore, if what participant A said is true, and people if people actually give to nonprofits that have missions they connect to, then maybe this means people aren’t connecting to NAIC’s mission. This could be because people aren’t aware of the severity of addiction.

Perception/Attitudes

The main purpose of the perception section in the NAIC survey is to know more about the participant’s current observations towards NAIC. The attitudes section is to gain more knowledge about the participant’s current attitude towards the organization. Together, these sections will provide us with information for our hypothesis, which is that people feel neutral towards NAIC.

 

An independent samples t test was conducted to examine perception (modest, efficient, essential, safe, high-quality, beneficial) of NAIC by male versus female publics. Results showed that there is no significant difference between perceptions, t(337)= -1.813, p=.07. Male (M=23.77, SD=4.14) participants held similar perceptions to female participants (M=24.62, SD=3.85). However, it is important to note that this scale’s range was 6-30, so an average or neutral score on this scale would have been 12. The scores on perception of NAIC for both males and females were well above the average.

 

An independent samples t test was conducted to examine Trust of NAIC by male versus female publics. Results showed that there is no significant difference between trust, t(337)= -.22, p=.07. Male (M=49.54, SD=7.71) participants held similar attitudes to female participants (M=49.75, SD=7.76). However, it is important to note that this scale’s range was 11-77, so an average or neutral score on this scale would have been 33. The scores on perception of NAIC for both males and females were moderately above the average.

An independent samples t test was conducted to examine Control Mutuality of NAIC by male versus female publics. Results showed that there is no significant difference between control mutuality, t(337)= -.24, p=.81. Male (M=35, SD=4.88) participants held similar attitudes to female participants (M=35.15, SD=5.43). However, it is important to note that this scale’s range was 8-56, so an average or neutral score on this scale would have been 24. The scores on perception of NAIC for both males and females were moderately above the average.

An independent samples t test was conducted to examine Commitment of NAIC by male versus female publics. Results showed that there is no significant difference between commitment, t(337)= .16, p=.81. Male (M=29.92, SD=4.95) participants held similar attitudes to female participants (M=29.82, SD=5.11). However, it is important to note that this scale’s range was 8-56, so an average or neutral score on this scale would have been 24. The scores on perception of NAIC for both males and females were only slightly above the average.

An independent samples t test was conducted to examine Satisfaction with NAIC by male versus female publics. Results showed that there is no significant difference between satisfaction, t(337)= -1.266, p=.21. Male (M=34.63, SD=4.79) participants held similar attitudes to female participants (M=35.4, SD=5.25). However, it is important to note that this scale’s range was 8-56, so an average or neutral score on this scale would have been 24. The scores on perception of NAIC for both males and females were moderately above the average.

An independent samples t test was conducted to examine Communal Relationships with NAIC by male versus female publics. Results showed that there is no significant difference between communal relationships, t(337)= -1.424, p=.16. Male (M=31.36, SD=5.79) participants held similar attitudes to female participants (M=32.4, SD=6.21). However, it is important to note that this scale’s range was 7-49, so an average or neutral score on this scale would have been 21. The scores on perception of NAIC for both males and females were moderately above the average.

An independent samples t test was conducted to examine Exchange Relationships with NAIC by male versus female publics. Results showed that there is no significant difference between exchange relationships, t(337)= .358, p=.72. Male (M=15.22, SD=3.19) participants held similar attitudes to female participants (M=15.07, SD=3.55). However, it is important to note that this scale’s range was 4-28, so an average or neutral score on this scale would have been 12. The scores on perception of NAIC for both males and females were only slightly above the average.

 

The qualitative findings that support this are the focus group and interview conducted by the research team. During the focus group, the research team asked what they specifically knew about NAIC. All of the participants shook their heads and said nothing. Then, participant C stated, “They need some PR.” During an interview, a stakeholder, Teresa Seal, said, “I don’t think a lot of the public knows we are here.” When it comes to perceptions and attitudes towards addiction, the general public views addiction as something that is shameful and that few people are open to discussing it. This concept was seen consistently throughout the qualitative research studies. During the focus group, the research team asked about the participant’s opinions of addiction. Participant A commented, “People feel like it’s okay to talk about things as long as it’s not a problem. So then [the problem] is repressed and gets worse.”  The other participants chimed in saying in today’s culture people are ashamed of their problems. This shame leads to people hiding their personal problems from the public. On this subject of not talking about addiction, participant B comments, “I think there is like a taboo about talking about it. I think if addiction is something you’re dealing with that’s not really something that you’re broadcasting to everybody”.  In the focus group study, the researchers determined the general public has a negative view of addiction, which inhibits them from donating to NAIC and other nonprofits with a similar mission.

Donation/Volunteering Results

This section in the NAIC survey asked participants questions about their donation and volunteering behaviors. Most of the questions included answer choices such as, extremely likely, somewhat likely, neither likely nor unlikely, somewhat unlikely, and extremely unlikely. Other questions referred to the number of hours participants volunteer. At the end of the survey, participants filled out a demographic section, which included their income. The research team’s hypothesis for donation/volunteering is that people with higher incomes are most likely to donate/volunteer. The statistical methods used to analyze the data were frequencies and descriptives.

Extremely likely to do volunteer work

33.6 %

Extremely likely to volunteer for NAIC

2.3%

Hours spent volunteering per week (#s changed into categories)

0 hours per week, 26.2%

1-2 hours per week, 45%

3 or more hours per week, 28.8%

Extremely likely to donate to nonprofits

26.2%

Extremely like to donate to NAIC

2.3%

 

The qualitative findings that support these findings can be proven through the focus group conducted by the research team. When presented with the question about wanting to donate to a non-profit, Participant D said, “Once you do donate to a non-profit you are working with, they need to and every year they call me and they will call a few months in advance because they understand that we have so much money in the company budget per year to donate to a non-profit. Those dollars do go a long, long way. Cause a lot of nonprofits use a lot of volunteers and volunteers are so limited so the dollars that a corporation will donate to a nonprofit do go a long and nonprofits need to emphasize the two corporations and keep going back to the same ones they do and then that leads to other ones.” Participant A also said, “I think also as long as you can see where your money is going. For me and my family the organizations we choose to donate to are ones that we know families that are positively affected by it or knows those that, if not in charge of it, part of the organizations that we can personally see where our money is going and who it is affecting so that we know it’s just not put into things somewhere and dispensed as checks but it’s helping people on a personal basis.” The participants agreed that corporations and families are more likely to donate when they are personally contacted in advance, see where there money is actually going, and are kept in touch afterwards.

Media Use Results (frequencies and descriptives)

 

In the behaviors section in the NAIC survey, participants were asked about their media behaviors. The statistical methods used to analyze the data related to media use were frequencies and descriptives. These questions included answer choices such as television, social media, newspaper, radio and push notifications. The research team’s hypothesis was that NAIC’s key public uses more traditional media, such as physical mail and emails based on the target demographic age.

 

Where do you receive most of your news? (only those ranked 1)

Television 28.2%

Social media/internet 48.1%

Newspaper 5.7%

Radio 4.6%

Push notifications 3.1%

How do you prefer to be contacted by organizations? (only those ranked 1)

Physical mail 23.1%

Email 38.7%

Social media 18.2%

Events 3.7%

Internet 5.7%

Hours per week spent on social media (#s changed into categories)

0-6 hours, 35.6%

7-11 hours, 26.8%

12 or more hours, 37.6%

 

The qualitative data used in this section was the focus group conducted by the research team. When the participants were asked about their personal communication channels that best suit them, participant C said, “To physically get mail is better than me checking a thousand emails.” The group also acknowledged that nonprofit events are effective in the community. Participant C responded to what media outlets they use with, “I read the newspaper everyday.” Participant B said, “I get most of my new online, not in a physical paper but. I think the places I subscribe to are Washington Post and New York Times.” When asked what media outlets NAIC should use to reach people like them, participant B said, “I think traditional media. Websites that also have online papers.” Also, participant A said, “My friends are very into sharing articles on Facebook.” It’s clear that most of the participants chose a specific, different media outlet, but they all shared the common factor of traditional media.

Communication/Message Analysis Results (Chi Squares & Regressions)

 

The purpose of the communication/message section is to see how effective NAIC is using their social media platforms. All the research team’s individuals coded posts from Facebook and two Twitter accounts, which totaled to 1494 posts. The statistical methods used to analyze the data were chi squares and regressions.

The Pearson Chi-Square was computed to determine if there was a significant relationship between social media type and replies. The analysis indicated there was a significant relationship X2 (4)=455.51, p= .000. NAIC replied 2.9% on Facebook , 0% on Twitter Recovery, and 0% on Twitter Help.

The Pearson Chi-Square was computed to determine if there was a significant relationship between social media type and clients. The analysis indicated there was a significant relationship X2 (2)=13.53, p=.001. NAIC mentioned clients 43.4% on Facebook , 54.35%  on Twitter Recovery, and 51% on Twitter Help.

The Pearson Chi-Square was computed to determine if there was a significant relationship between social media type and volunteers. The analysis indicated there was a significant relationship X2 (2)=96.82, p= .000. NAIC mentioned volunteers 19.9% on Facebook , 48.3% on Twitter Recovery, and 33.6% on Twitter Help.

The Pearson Chi-Square was computed to determine if there was a significant relationship between social media type and donors. The analysis indicated there was a significant relationship X2 (2)=94.91, p= .000. NAIC mentioned donors 18.4% on Facebook , 46% on Twitter Recovery, and 25.6% on Twitter Help.

The Pearson Chi-Square was computed to determine if there was a significant relationship between social media type and images. The analysis indicated there was a significant relationship X2 (2)=94.91, p=.000. NAIC used images 78% on Facebook , 31.6% on Twitter Recovery, and .3% on Twitter Help.

The Pearson Chi-Square was computed to determine if there was a significant relationship between social media type and videos. The analysis indicated there was a significant relationship X2 (2)=102.27, p=.000. NAIC used videos 3.9% on Facebook , 17% on Twitter Recovery, and 0% on Twitter Help.

The Pearson Chi-Square was computed to determine if there was a significant relationship between social media type and infographics. The analysis indicated there was a significant relationship X2 (2)=83.82, p= .000. N0AIC used infographics 3.6% on Facebook , 14.7% on Twitter Recovery, and 0% on Twitter Help.

The Pearson Chi-Square was computed to determine if there was a significant relationship between social media type and NAIC hashtags. The analysis indicated there was a significant relationship X2 (2)=94.24, p=.000. NAIC used their own hashtag 2.8% on Facebook , 14.4% on Twitter Recovery, and 0% on Twitter Help.

The Pearson Chi-Square was computed to determine if there was a significant relationship between social media type and other hashtags. The analysis indicated there was a significant relationship X2 (2)=110.18, p=.000. NAIC used other hashtags 25.3% on Facebook , 15.8% on Twitter Recovery, and 0% on Twitter Help.

The Pearson Chi-Square was computed to determine if there was a significant relationship between social media type and issue hashtags The analysis indicated there was a significant relationship X2 (2)=75.14, p=.000. NAIC used issue hashtags 4.2% on Facebook , 14.4% on Twitter Recovery, and 0% on Twitter Help.

The Pearson Chi-Square was computed to determine if there was a significant relationship between social media type and website link. The analysis indicated there was a significant relationship X2 (2)=86.49, p=.000. NAIC linked to their own website 22.4% on Facebook , 13.2% on Twitter Recovery, and 1.1% on Twitter Help.

The Pearson Chi-Square was computed to determine if there was a significant relationship between social media type and media. The analysis indicated there was a significant relationship X2 (2)=797.21, p=.000. NAIC linked to media 3.4% on Facebook , 65.8% on Twitter Recovery, and 80.1% on Twitter Help.

The Pearson Chi-Square was computed to determine if there was a significant relationship between social media type and articles. The analysis indicated there was a significant relationship X2 (2)=6.09, p=.05. NAIC linked to articles 24.4% on Facebook , 21.3% on Twitter Recovery, and 17.9% on Twitter Help.

The Pearson Chi-Square was computed to determine if there was a significant relationship between social media type and testimonials The analysis indicated there was a significant relationship X2 (2)=135.09, p=.001. NAIC used testimonials 4.5% on Facebook , 29.3% on Twitter Recovery, and 16.2% on Twitter Help.

The Pearson Chi-Square was computed to determine if there was a significant relationship between social media type and questions. The analysis indicated there was a significant relationship X2 (2)=84.48, p=.000. NAIC asked publics questions 2.3% on Facebook , 14.9% on Twitter Recovery, and 2.6% on Twitter Help.

The Pearson Chi-Square was computed to determine if there was a significant relationship between social media type and sharing. The analysis indicated there was a significant relationship X2 (6)=235.70, p=.000. NAIC asked for sharing 3.5% on Facebook , 14.1% on Twitter Recovery, and 1.4% on Twitter Help.

The Pearson Chi-Square was computed to determine if there was a significant relationship between social media type and promoting. The analysis indicated there was a significant relationship X2 (2)=17.20, p=.000. NAIC promoted themselves 20.6% on Facebook , 12.9% on Twitter Recovery, and 12.3% on Twitter Help.

The Pearson Chi-Square was computed to determine if there was a significant relationship between social media type and drug issue mentions. The analysis indicated there was a significant relationship X2 (2)=22.21, p=.000. NAIC mentioned drug issues 17% on Facebook , 14.9% on Twitter Recovery, and 6.6% on Twitter Help.

The Pearson Chi-Square was computed to determine if there was a significant relationship between social media type and alcohol issue mentions. The analysis indicated there was a significant relationship X2 (2)=,17.09 p=.000. NAIC mentioned alcohol issues 13.3% on Facebook , 13.8% on Twitter Recovery, and 5.4% on Twitter Help.

The Pearson Chi-Square was computed to determine if there was a significant relationship between social media type and gambling issue mentions. The analysis indicated there was a significant relationship X2 (2)=39.89, p=.000. NAIC mentioned gambling issues 7% on Facebook , on 17% Twitter Recovery, and 4.6% on Twitter Help.

Likes/Favorites

Simple linear regressions were conducted to determine how well each of the social media indicators explained likes/favorites for a social media post.

Use of NAIC hashtags is a significant predictor of likes, t(3) = -3.19, p=.001, accounting for 2% of the variance (Adjusted R2). The analysis indicated that as NAIC hashtags increase, the number of likes is estimated to decrease by 2.15 (95% CI: -.83, -3.47; Beta =- .10).

Use of other hashtags is a significant predictor of likes, t(3) = 5.28, p=.000, accounting for 2% of the variance (Adjusted R2). The analysis indicated that as other hashtags increase, the number of likes is estimated to increase by 1.78 (95% CI:2.44, 1.12; Beta = .15).

Use of images is a significant predictor of likes, t(3) = 13.03, p=.000, accounting for 10% of the variance (Adjusted R2). The analysis indicated that as images increase, the number of likes is estimated to increase by 2.81 (95% CI: 3.23, 2.39; Beta = .32).

Use of infographics is a significant predictor of likes, t(6) = 2.01, p=.04, accounting for 12% of the variance (Adjusted R2). The analysis indicated that as infographics increase, the number of likes is estimated to increase by 2.81 (95% CI: 2.15, .03; Beta = .06).

Use of media is a significant predictor of likes, t(6) = -13.08, p=.000, accounting for 12% of the variance (Adjusted R2). The analysis indicated that as media links increase, the number of likes is estimated to decrease by 2.81 (95% CI: -2.69, -3.64; Beta = -.34).

Use of articles is a significant predictor of likes, t(6) = -5.28, p=.000, accounting for 12% of the variance (Adjusted R2). The analysis indicated that as article links increase, the number of likes is estimated to decrease by 2.81 (95% CI: -.94, -2.05; Beta = -.14).

Use of sharing is a significant predictor of likes, t(6) = -2.79, p=.005, accounting for 12% of the variance (Adjusted R2). The analysis indicated that requests for shares increase, the number of likes is estimated to decrease by 2.81 (95% CI: -.17, -.97; Beta = -.07).

Use of questions is a significant predictor of likes, t(1) = -2.17, p=.03, accounting for .2% of the variance (Adjusted R2). The analysis indicated that use of questions increase, the number of likes is estimated to decrease by 1.10 (95% CI: -.11, -2.10; Beta = -.06).

Shares/Retweets

Simple linear regressions were conducted to determine how well each of the social media indicators explained shares/retweets for a social media post.

Use of images is a significant predictor of shares, t(1) = 6.83, p=.000, accounting for 3% of the variance (Adjusted R2). The analysis indicated that as images increase, the number of shares is estimated to increase by .28 (95% CI:.37, .20; Beta=.17).

Use of website links is a significant predictor of shares, t(6) = 4.96, p=.000, accounting for 3% of the variance (Adjusted R2). The analysis indicated that as website links increase, the number of shares is estimated to increase by .31 (95% CI:.44, .19; Beta=.14).

Use of media is a significant predictor of shares, t(6) = -3.72, p=.000, accounting for 3% of the variance (Adjusted R2). The analysis indicated that as media links increase, the number of shares is estimated to decrease by .17 (95% CI:-.08, -.27; Beta=-.10).

Comments

Simple linear regressions were conducted to determine how well each of the social media indicators explained comments for a social media post.

Use of NAIC hashtags is a significant predictor of comments, t(3) = -3.42, p=.001, accounting for 1% of the variance (Adjusted R2). The analysis indicated that as NAIC hashtags increase, the number of comments is estimated to decrease by .46 (95% CI: -.19, -.72; Beta =- .11).

Use of other hashtags is a significant predictor of comments, t(3) = 3.46, p=.001, accounting for 1% of the variance (Adjusted R2). The analysis indicated that as other hashtags increase, the number of comments is estimated to increase by .23 (95% CI:.36, .10; Beta = .10).

Use of images is a significant predictor of comments, t(1) = 12.55, p=.000, accounting for 5% of the variance (Adjusted R2). The analysis indicated that as images increase, the number of comments is estimated to increase by .40 (95% CI:.49, .10; Beta=.32).

Use of media is a significant predictor of comments, t(6) = -6,97, p=.000, accounting for 7% of the variance (Adjusted R2). The analysis indicated that as media links increase, the number of comments is estimated to decrease by .34 (95% CI:-.24, -.44; Beta=-.19).

Use of articles is a significant predictor of comments, t(6) = -2.59, p=.01, accounting for 7% of the variance (Adjusted R2). The analysis indicated that as article links increase, the number of comments is estimated to decrease by .15 (95% CI:-.04, -.26; Beta=-.07).

Use of sharing is a significant predictor of comments, t(6) = -3.89, p=.000, accounting for 7% of the variance (Adjusted R2). The analysis indicated that as sharing requests increase, the number of comments is estimated to increase by .16 (95% CI:-.08, -.24; Beta=-.10).

Use of promotion is a significant predictor of comments, t(6) = 6.65, p=.000, accounting for 7% of the variance (Adjusted R2). The analysis indicated that as promotions increase, the number of comments is estimated to increase by .41 (95% CI:.53, .29; Beta=.18).

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